Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2022 Nov 21;44(11):5802-5814. doi: 10.3390/cimb44110394.
Neurodegeneration leads to multiple early changes in cognitive, emotional, and social behaviours and ultimately progresses to dementia. The dysregulation of calcium is one of the earliest potentially initiating events in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. A primary neuronal target of calcium is the small sensor and effector protein calmodulin that, in response to calcium levels, binds to and regulates hundreds of calmodulin binding proteins. The intimate and entangled relationship between calmodulin binding proteins and all phases of Alzheimer's disease has been established, but the relationship to other neurodegenerative diseases is just beginning to be evaluated. Risk factors and hallmark proteins from Parkinson's disease (PD; SNCA, Parkin, PINK1, LRRK2, PARK7), Huntington's disease (HD; Htt, TGM1, TGM2), Lewy Body disease (LBD; TMEM175, GBA), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal disease (ALS/FTD; VCP, FUS, TDP-43, TBK1, C90rf72, SQSTM1, CHCHD10, SOD1) were scanned for the presence of calmodulin binding domains and, within them, appropriate binding motifs. Binding domains and motifs were identified in multiple risk proteins, some of which are involved in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. The potential calmodulin binding profiles for risk proteins involved in HD, PD, LBD, and ALS/FTD coupled with other studies on proven binding proteins supports the central and potentially critical role for calmodulin in neurodegenerative events.