2 min read

ID: 1240831

Short Link: https://gregory-ms.com/articles/1240831/

Discovery Date: 21 February 2023, 12:31:07 UTC

Published Date: 2023-02-16 00:00:00

Source: BioMedCentral

Link: https://biosignaling.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12964-022-01036-6

Manual Selection: true

Machine Learning Gaussian Naive Bayes Model: false

Main Takeaways

A1 astrocytes are harmful as they upregulate the neurotoxic classical complement cascade genes . Conversely, A2 are neuroprotective, upregulating the production of many neurotrophic factors . Transplantation of these A2 astrocetes into the lesion site of the spinal cord of mice significantly improved motor function recovery .

Abstract

jats:titleAbstract</jats:title>jats:sec jats:titleBackground</jats:title> jats:pLimited progress in terms of an effective treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI) emphasizes the urgent need for novel therapies. As a vital central nervous system component, the resident astrocytes play crucial roles in regulating recovery after SCI. In this study, recovery after SCI was compared following the transplantation of either A1 or A2 astrocytes. A1 astrocytes are harmful as they upregulate the neurotoxic classical complement cascade genes. Conversely, A2 astrocytes are characterized as neuroprotective as they upregulate the production of many neurotrophic factors.</jats:p> </jats:sec>jats:sec jats:titleMethods</jats:title> jats:pWe used different supernatant obtained from microglia stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or interleukin-4 to generate A1 and A2 astrocytes. We detected the influence of astrocytes on neurons by co-culturing A1 and A2 astrocytes with neurons. We transplanted astrocytes into the lesion site of the spinal cord and assessed lesion progression, neural restoration, glia formation and locomotor recovery.</jats:p> </jats:sec>jats:sec jats:titleResults</jats:title> jats:pAstrocytes were polarized into A1 and A2 phenotypes following culture in the supernatant obtained from microglia stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or interleukin-4, respectively. Furthermore, co-culturing A2 astrocytes with neurons significantly suppressed glutamate-induced neuronal apoptosis and promoted the degree of neuron arborization. Transplantation of these A2 astrocytes into the lesion site of the spinal cord of mice significantly improved motor function recovery, preserved spared supraspinal pathways, decreased glia scar deposition, and increased neurofilament formation at the site of injury compared to the transplantation of A1 astrocytes. Additionally, enhanced A2 astrocytes with potentially beneficial A2-like genes were also detected in the A2 group. Moreover, luxol fast blue staining and electron microscopy indicated increased preservation of myelin with organized structure after transplantation of A2 astrocytes than of A1 astrocytes.</jats:p> </jats:sec>jats:sec jats:titleConclusions</jats:title> jats:pA2 astrocyte transplantation could be a promising potential therapy for SCI.</jats:p> </jats:sec>jats:sec jats:titleGraphical Abstract</jats:title> </jats:sec>

Noun Phrases in Title

  • Transplantation
  • A2 type astrocytes
  • neural repair
  • remyelination
  • spinal cord injury
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